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1.太阳能电池的发展:从1615年法国工程师所罗门·德·考克斯发明了第一台利用太阳能加热空气膨胀做功而抽水的机器开始,人类将太阳能作为一种能源和动力直接加以利用,已有300多年的历史了。在我国,太阳能作为一种新兴的清洁能源,对它的研究利用起步较晚。但由于太阳能具有的多种优势,加上国家的扶持政策,在我国已经形成了初步的太阳能产业链,并呈现出良好的发展前景。

1. The development of solar energy cell: from 1615 this was invented that first Taiwan uses the solar heating air to expand acting and machine drawn water initial stage to France engineer Luo Men virtue cock, and the mankind directly use solar energy as the one kind of sources of energy and motive force, and has had the history of more than 300 years. In our country, solar energy is as one kind of new and developing clean sources of energy, and research to it uses startting evening. But because many kinds of superiority that the solar energy possesses, again the helping policy of nation had formed the industrial chain of initial solar energy in our country, and appears the good development foreground.

2.太阳能电池的发电原理:太阳能电池板也同晶体管一样,是由半导体组成的。它的主要材料是硅,也有一些其他合金。

太阳能电池板的表面由两个性质各异的部分组成。当太阳能电池板受到光的照射时,能够把光能转变为电能,使电流从一方流向另一方。太阳能电池板就是根据这种原理设计的。太阳能电池板只要受到阳光或灯光的照射,一般就可发出相当于所接收光能1/10的电来。为了使太阳能电池板最大限度地减少光反射,将光能转变为电能,一般在它的上面都蒙上了一层防止光反射的膜,使太阳能电池板的表面呈紫色。

太阳能是一种取之不尽,用之不竭的自然再生能源,为绿色环保能源;太阳能电池是一种将太阳光直接转变成电能的新型器件,只要一照到光立刻就可产生电而输出电压和电流,即可直接使用供电,也可将电储存于蓄电池,供晚上或停电时使用。

2. The generating electricity principle of solar energy cell: the solar energy cell board is also the same with the transistor, and forms by the semiconductor. Its major material is a silicon, other alloys also having some.

Forms by each different parts of two quality on the surface of solar energy cell board. When suffering light when the solar energy cell board shining to change light energy to the electric energy, and make the current from another side of one side's direction of a current. The solar energy cell board is designed according to this kind of principle. As long as the solar energy cell board suffers shining of sunlight or lamplight, generally can issue matching that the electricity of the light energy received 1/10 comes. Changes light energy to the electric energy, and generally all covered the membrane that the tier was prevented the optical reflection on it, and make the surface of solar energy cell board assume the purple in order to make solar energy cell board utmost ground reduce the optical reflection.

The solar energy is one kind of endless to take the, natural regeneration sources of energy of usefulness not used up, for the green environmental protection sources of energy; The solar energy cell is directly changing the sunlight the new parts into the electric energy, as long as when shining that light can give rise to electricity and export voltage and current immediately, namely can directly use the power supply, and also can lay in the electricity in the storage battery, and the use when supplying evening or power cut.

3.太阳能电池的分类:太阳能电池根据其所用材料、生产工艺和结构的不同,主要可分为单晶硅、多晶硅和非晶硅三种,其各具千秋,各有特点。单晶硅太阳能电池转换效率最高(转换效率13~15%,有的已达到20%以上),面积小,输出功率大,稳定性好,使用寿命长(一般可达20年以上),但原材料成本较高,弱光特性较差,生产工艺复杂,故售价也较高;多晶硅太阳能电池与单晶硅太阳能电池的性能特点基本相同;非晶硅太阳能电池的转换效率较低(约6~8%左右),面积较大,但因其原材料成本较低,可便于大面积工业化生产,今后最有希望用于一般大面积发电的将是这种电池.随着制造技术和新材料的应用,一旦它的大面积实用组件光电转换效率达到10-15%以上,每瓦发电设备的价格降到1~2美元时,便足以大面积得到广泛应用并将不断取代现在常规能源.当然特殊用途和实验室中的太阳能电池效率要高得多。

太阳能电池的应用:太阳能电池也可广泛应用于山区海岛、草原牧区、林业气象、地质油田、铁路国防、邮电通讯、公共设施及家庭住宅等各种场合的电器供电和照明。

3. The classification of solar energy cell: The solar energy cell is according to the difference of the material that his is used, production technology and structure, and chiefly can be divided into monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon and 3 kinds of non- brilliant silicon, and each possesses a thousand years to his, and various has the characteristic. The area is small to the highest ( conversion efficiency 13 - 15%, some have achieved more than 20% ) of monocrystalline silicon solar energy cell conversion efficiency, and output power is big, and stability is good, grows ( generally can reach more than 20 years ) service life, but the raw and processed material cost height, the weak light specific property is wronger, and production technology is complicated, hence the selling price is also higher; The polycrystalline silicon solar energy cell is basic identical with the function characteristic of monocrystalline silicon solar energy cell; The conversion efficiency of non- brilliant silicon solar cell than hangs down ( simples about 6 - 8% ), the area is than greatly, but because of his raw and processed material cost than hanging down, can be easy to big area industrialize production, what will have hope to be used the generally big area to generate electricity from now on most will be this kind of application that battery is along with manufacture technique and new material, in a single day the practical package photoelectricity conversion efficiency of its big area achieves more than the 10-15%, and the price of every tile electric power-generating equipment is fallen 1 - 2 U.S.dollar of time, and just is enough to that the solar energy cell efficiency that big area the getting extensive use will constantly replace in now convention certainly special use and the laboratory of sources of energy s will high(ly) get many(ly).

But the application of solar energy cell: solar energy cell also electrical equipment power supply and the illumination in mountain area island, grasslands pastureland, forestry meteorological phenomena, geology oil field, railway national defence, post and telecommunications communication, public utility and family residence etc various occasions of extensive use.

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